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LIFE - HEAT-R

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Celsa Steel Industry: Technical Visit

In order to start a thermoelectricity project, it is important to have a physical visit to the facilities in order to determine the waste heat ranges and the temperature in addition to the installation of the WHRU system.  The technical visit was made at Celsa (Castellbisbal, Barcelona) on May 11, 2018.

Heat Source

Thermographic measurements have been made in the the furnace zone, the casting area and in the beam blank.. The points analyzed are shown below:

Measurements

Below you can see the results obtained

Beam blank - Load Zone

 

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Load zone 393,9 °C 74,5 °C 653,4°C 0,98 237,38ºC
Beam blank - Out

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Out 182,2°C 39,6°C 645,8°C 0,98 175,74ºC
Beam Blank - Linear Out

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Linear Out 188,4°C 43,9°C 619,2°C 0,98 191,36ºC
Smelting Furnace

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Smelting Furnace 143,1°C 46,0°C 812,0°C 0,98 114,76ºC
Smelting Area

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Smelting Area 15,9°C 0,2°C 422,8°C 0,98 14,17ºC
Bucket emptying area

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Bucket emptying area 85,5°C 14,3°C 530,4°C 0,98 – ºC

Conclusion

After the visit to CELSA S.A, we have identified different potential heat recovery points, all of them at high temperatures (above 500ºC).

To carry out the first pilot, special interest has been paid in the output of the beam blank. In this outlet, there are groups of 6 transmission rollers that allow up to a total of 6 metal beams to be distributed to a collector clamp at a time.

Once the beams reach the entire length, a bridge crane lifts the beam from its towing and resting area to a front area, where it is again dragged by another transmission system to an outside area, where it is transported to a cooling area.

In order to make a schedule to establish the performance of the equipment, the best case and worst case of the duration of the beam blank will be analyzed in the final drag zone, and the time it takes to replenish a new beam blank. This calculation will allow us to analyze the maximum and minimum performance cycles of the equipment as well as on a next visit, the maximum power that can be generated per hour. So that:

– The time that the beam remains in the unloading zone, and runs through column 2:
Worst case: 29 seconds, Best Case: 62 seconds.

– The replacement time between beam and beam:
Worst case: 64 seconds. Best case: 19 seconds.

The time in which the beam blank goes from the shock column on the right to the one on the left is 10 seconds. This means an additional 10 second stay of the beam blank in the exposure area (and electrical generation).

After analyzing the times, we consider it appropriate to choose the limit column on the left to mount the possible pilot, as additional exposure is achieved.

Cementos Molins Cement Industry: Technical Visit

In order to start a thermoelectricity project, it is important to have a physical visit to the facilities in order to determine the waste heat ranges and the temperature in addition to the installation of the WHRU system.  The technical visit was made at the Cementos Molins (St. Vicenç del Horts, Barcelona) on Juny 29th, 2018.

Heat Source

In Cementos Molins there is a big variety of heat points. The points analyzed are shown below:

Measurements

Below you can see the results obtained

Rotary Oven Hopper

 

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Rotary Oven Hopper 186,84°C 93,00°C 276,38°C 0,98 37,76ºC
Rotary Oven Point 1

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Rotary Oven Point 1 368,86°C 58,13°C 398,59°C 0,98 36,14ºC
Rotary Oven Point 2

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Rotary Oven Point 2 367,08°C 343,46°C 388,50°C 0,98 9,57ºC
Pipe WOGA oil boil point 1

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
WOGA oil boil point 1 175,17°C 33,77°C 362,51°C 0,98 80,92ºC
Rotary Oven Chimney

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Rotary Oven Chimney 18,43°C -6,00°C 62,53°C 0,98 15,34ºC
Industrial processing 1

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Industrial processing 1 127,85°C 35,52°C 799,40°C 0,98 122,47 ºC
Industrial processing 2

 

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Industrial processing 2 132,45°C 18,25°C 838,23°C 0,98 148,06ºC
Gas outlet chimney

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Gas outlet chimney 34,49°C -3,06°C 93,19°C 0,98 21,17ºC

 

Heating pipe

 

Name Average Min Max Emissivity Standard Deviation
Heating pipe 27,69°C -5,67°C 127,933°C 0,98 16,94ºC

 

 

Conclusion

After the visit to CIMENTS MOLINS, different potential heat recovery points have been identified, although not all of them are suitable.

Most pipes in the installation have an inner ring of refractory material having to withstand very high temperatures.

There are some pipes in the installation without refractory material inside that conduct gases at about 300ºC. The identified pipes are heat insulated and have a non-commercial diameter (greater than the standardized pipe diameter). This fact, together with the high height of these pipes, makes it impossible to place WHRU modules, from the point of view of their installation.

The manufacturing process of calcium aluminate cement (molten) is another point to consider the installation of WHRU units.

The installation of WHRU modules at this point is not suitable for several reasons:
• Dirty environment (with dust and vapors) and corrosive.
• Very high ambient temperature.

 

Another point to consider the installation of WHRU modules is in the rotary oven.

The rotary oven has an internal temperature of 1000 ºC. For this reason, the furnace is covered with refractory material that causes the outer temperature of the furnace surface to be around 390 ° C.
On the other hand, the available area existing at one end of the rotary kiln together with the ease of bringing cooling water to this point, makes it possible to consider the placement of WHRU modules that take advantage, by radiation, of the heat that emerges from the surface of the rotary oven.

The cooling water would come from the cooling towers. Said water leaves at about 25 ° C from the cooling towers. In the rotary oven, the cooling water is used to cool the rollers that move the oven. Very close to the area proposed for the installation of the WHRU modules, there is a roller and, consequently, availability of cooling water.

The Head of Engineering and Maintenance informs us that he would send us the cooling water to the WHRU installation point and return it to cooling towers through the return water network at his exit from the waterblocks.

Therefore, it is established that the installation of WHRU modules for the use of residual heat by radiation from the surface of the rotary oven would be the prototype to be proposed in this installation.

 

Gomà Camps Paper Industry: Prototype Design

Location

It is proposed to install 2 WHRU modules to extract profitable energy from an exhaust fume chimney of the Yankee cylinder of a tissue dryer (machine #6).

Initial design decisions

The two WHRU modules will be installed on a decagonal tube.

The decagonal tube will consist of a section of pipe or similar that is equipped with a flange in each end. The decagonal tube will be prepared to integrate ten WHRU modules. This decagonal tube will be installed on the existing exhaust fume chimney.

 

The exhaust fume chimney has an outside diameter of 900 mm with a thickness of 3 mm.

The outlet temperature of the exhaust fumes from the burners has an average of 200 ºC (with peaks of 210 ºC), according to the measurements provided by Gomà-Camps.

For the WHRU cooling, water coming from the cooling towers of the installation at 14-20 ºC may be available.

FEATURES OF THE SYSTEM

  • WHRU modules will be equipped with waterblocks for the system cooling with water.
  • The cooling water system will be provided with air bleed valves to avoid the presence of air in the water circuit.
  • For monitoring the correct functioning of the prototype, 2 types of sensor nodes will be installed:
    – Type 1-Temperature Node: Th, Tc and Tgases output.
    – Type 2-Node Wattmeter to measure the power generated by the system. Said node will be installed inside the electrical panel.
  • The technology to be applied in the communication between the sensor nodes and the Gateway will be LoRa.
  • A Gateway will be installed to collect all the data sent by the sensors.
  • The Gateway will be powered from the power grid.
  • The communication between the Gateway and the server will be via 3G/4G.
  • DAEVIS platform will be displayed for data visualization.
  • An electrical cabinet equipped with electrical protections and an inverter will be installed to transform DC to AC to inject the power generated by the WHRU modules into the power grid.
  • Said electrical cabinet will be powered from the power grid.
  • Plumbing work to get the cooling water to the WHRU modules from the cooling tower will be carried out by Gomà-Camps maintenance personnel.
  • The electrical connection work (placement of the electrical cabinet, cable routing and electrical connections with the cabinet, …) will be carried out by Gomà-Camps maintenance personnel.
  • Mechanical cutting and welding work will be carried out by a mechanical assembly company hired by Gomà-Camps.
  • Because of the floor is non-practicable and the exhaust fume chimney is 12 m high, a vertical lift and a crane truck will be required to carry out the installation works.

Specific points

A Heat R-System energy recovery system will be installed in a configuration of 2 WHRU modules with 6 40×40 thermoelectric generators, which incorporates Cold Plate technology for the cooling of the modules located in the chimney of the tissue dryer.
The sensors node will be installed inside an independent box that will be installed close to the 2 WHRU modules.

The distribution of the water to the waterblocks will be done by means of a T-fitting with silicone hoses.   The cooling system will be equipped with air bleed valves and anti-return connectors to prevent the presence of air. 

WHRU modules will penetrate the conduit with anodized aluminum heatsinks.

Mechanical design

The installation of a decagonal tube is chosen to fix two WHRU modules and the sensors node into the 900 mm diameter chimney.

As for WHRUs units, the installation of six 40×40 thermoelectric generators in each module is chosen. These thermoelectric generators have a non-continuous working limit of 250ºC and a continuous limit of 200ºC. As long as there is no water cut, these cells will work at an optimal working point. In the event of a water cut, the system may fail.

The WHRU module is mainly made up of the following components:

1. 240x40x63 mm aluminum sensor. Black anodized finish to improve corrosion resistance.
2. Frame-Cell Support-Mica Insulator. This component will act as a fixation to the mounting conduit, and at the same time will act as an insulator, since this material has 0.3 W / mK of thermal conductivity and will improve the performance of the equipment. In addition, it will serve to house the cells.
3. Cold Plate. Open liquid cooling system (water) that will be in charge of exerting pressure force on the cells, in addition to cooling the cold side of the cells in order to obtain the maximum thermal differential.
4. Powerbox support. Made of carbon steel. It will act as a support for the power box and will be located on the Cold Plate in order to prevent it from heating up.
5. Powerbox. the PCB will be located inside the box.
6. Thermoelectric generator. Each WHRU module will be equipped with 6 thermoelectric generators with dimensions 40x40x3.6 mm, which can produce up to 6.9 W.

In order for the system to work properly, it is very important that the cooling system meets the following characteristics:

– Fluid: clean water
– Flow: 2 to 5 l / min
– Pressure: 1-2 bars
-Temperature: 10 – 30 ºC

Electrical design

We will place an electrical cabinet with its respective electrical safety: two 16A fuses at the input of the inverter, a 10A magnetothermic switch that cuts the phase and the neutral.

A network synchronized inverter is required, which goes from the 14V output of the system to 230V / 50Hz of the network. There is also a wattmeter to be able to read the power generated remotely.

A 5V power supply is installed for the operation of the sensor nodes and the wattmeter reader, and another 12V source to supply the sensor if the distance between the cabinet and the modules requires it.

 

Electronics design

It is required to transform the input voltage from the thermoelectric generator into the required voltage of 14V. This will be done by a set of several CC/CC Boost converters. The control of the CC/CC boost converters operation will be performed by a control printed circuit board.

With an estimated temperature on the hot side of around 150ºC and 25ºC on the cold side, the input resistance of the converter should not exceed 6.7Ω, so the power management system should be made not to exceed a certain value that will be adjusted with tests.

The electronic boards will be located inside power boxes.

Regarding sensorization, two nodes will be installed to monitor the proper operation of the WHRU modules: the first with 4 temperature points (hot face, cold face, gas inlet, gas outlet) and a second one to read the Wattmeter data at the system output.

 

 

Communication platform

The IoT communication nodes will receive temperature and the generated power data from the sensors. These data will be sent using LoRa communications to the gateway. The restriction of using this type of communication is that it does not allow obtaining data in real-time. Each sample will be sent a certain time. The order of magnitude of time that we must take into account is minutes.
The data will be sent to a Gateway, which will treat it appropriately.

Considerations

  • There are distance limitations in terms of communications and therefore LoRa technology will be used for the communication of the nodes
  • A RAK7249 gateway will be mounted. The gateway packet forwarder is configured to send the data from the things network server to the AEInnova account for node management and the gateway itself.
  • A packet forwarder is deployed that acts as a gateway between the MQTT server of The things network and the DAEVIS instance for the Goma Camps client.
  • For communications from the gateway to the server, the 3G / 4G communications module that incorporates the gateway will be used. To do this, a mobile phone SIM with data must be used to send data to the LoRa server.
  • DAEVIS platform will be used for data explotation.

 

 

Gomà Camps Paper Industry: Pilot Installation

The installation was carried out on February 20, 2020.

The conduit was manipulated by the maintenance staff of Gomà Camps following the instructions of the mechanical department of AEInnova.

The final installation of the recovery system was carried out jointly with the staff of AEInnova and Gomà Camps.

Below you can see some of the photographs taken at the installation.

 

Gomà Camps Paper Industry: Prototype Implementation

Mechanical

Electrical

Electrical panel with its respective electrical safety: two 16A fuses at the input of the inverter, a 10A magneto thermal switch that cuts the phase and the neutral.

Electronics

DC-DC converter

Features

Minimum Input Open-circuit voltage for turn-on 4V
Maximum Input Open-circuit voltage for turn-on 24V
Maximum Input Peak-Peak Voltage Ripple N/A
Maximum Output Peak-Peak Voltage Ripple ±0.4V
Switching Frequency 50kHz
Efficiency >85%
Max Input Current 3.5A per canal
Max output Voltage 15V

 

Communications

AEInnova participates in the Day of Reflection and Debate organized by the Chair of Leadership and Democratic Governance of ESADE

Day of Reflection and Debate organized by the Chair of Leaderships and Democratic Governance of ESADE

On September 30, the World Day of Reflection and Debate was organized by the ESADE Chair of Leadership and Democratic Governance, led by Prof. Àngel Castiñeira. Under the motto Are we in time? Business leadership to transform the world the day focused on the 2030 agenda and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).

The event was attended by a number of important personalities from the business, social and political world of our country with a long list of top business executives and various political leaders led by the Honorable Àngels Chacón, Minister of Enterprise and Knowledge of the Generalitat de Catalunya.

Initially, several working groups were created that reflected on the different axes related to SDG’s. AEInnova participated in a group that reflected on energy where he could explain his experience in thermoelectricity, achieved from the European project LIFE HEAT-R, and share with other major companies and organizations the great challenges that we are faced with a real energy transition and, unfortunately, transcending the intentions of each company.

Next, a joint statement was made in which there were concerns about the threat of climate change and the need to redirect business activities towards sustainable development to meet the challenges of the 2030 agenda. Multiple proposals on experiences and testimonies were presented and commented on in multiple sectors that provided a comprehensive approach to the situation, concluding that it is necessary for companies and society to act in a firm, determined and courageous manner.

The Day of Reflection and Debate has an annual nature with the objective of reflecting, from a strategic perspective, on issues relevant to the public agenda and providing new ideas and approaches that will lead the development and progress of the country.

Inauguration of the 26th academic year of the Salesian University School of Sarria (EUSS)

On October 2, Dr. Raúl Aragonés gave the inaugural conference of the 26th academic year of the Salesian University School of Sarria (EUSS).

His conference began with a review of the most relevant milestones of Humanity and then focused on the progress that has taken place in the last 150 years and its severe environmental consequences.

In a second part, he reflected on the current energy model, which he defined as unfeasible, and then presented alternative technologies in energy generation.

Finally, he made a special mention to the Energy Harvesting technologies, explaining the status and progress of the European LIFE HEAT-R project that they are developing in AEInnova.

Dr. Raúl Aragonés is a EUSS graduate student and he was grateful for the honor to participate in this prestigious event at a university that was fundamental in his training.

 

AEInnova has participated in the 24th World Energy Congress of Abu Dhabi

AEInnova, member of SET 100 – a group that brings together the top 100 startups in the world committed to the energy transition – has been invited by DENA (Deutsche Energie Agentur / German Energy Agency) to participate in the 24th World Energy Congress, an event organized by the World Energy Council and held in Abu Dhabi from September 9 to 12.

Under the motto of Energy for Prosperity, multiple conferences and working groups were designed to bring together top-level political, business and research agents as well as a large representation of the main actors involved in the generation and distribution of energy with the objective of reflecting on the main difficulties in achieving a sustainable global energy system that allows high levels of prosperity and well-being.

After four days of work, the need to evolve towards a decarbonized energy model is evident, but there is still a lot of obstacles to solve. On the one hand, technological aspects, such as the redesign of electrical networks or the storage of energy to balance supply and demand); on the other, economic aspects, both in terms of the necessary investments and the possibility (or not) of being able to assume them – especially in developing countries – and, finally, social aspects that will be produced as a result of the redefinition of the economic models. In summary, problems that can only be solved by solidarity, courageous and transversal policies that facilitate cooperation, innovation and investment.
With regard to AEInnova, we was invited to the workshops held by the World Economic Forum and the O15 + ICER Annual Workshop (International Conference of Energy Regulators) where we could present the possibilities of thermoelectricity as a result of the experience obtained through the European LIFE project HEAT-R.

According to David Comellas, CEO of AEInnova, this conference “has allowed us to see the problems from a very generalist and polyhedral perspective and to express that the desire to decarbonize the planet is not a political or marketing campaign but rather It is a fact shared by all the actors involved but, unfortunately, there are still many challenges to be resolved so that it becomes a reality

We  deeply thanked the DENA‘s invitation and congratulations to the World Energy Council for the organization that has been excellent in every way.

 

 

Familia Torres winery industry: Pilot installation

Installation

The installation was carried out on April 25, 2019.

The conduit was manipulated by the maintenance staff of the Familia Torres winery following the instructions of the mechanical department of AEInnova.

The final installation of the recovery system was carried out jointly with the staff of AEInnova and Familia Torres.

Below you can see some of the photographs taken at the installation.

 

 

 

 

AEInnova at ECOMONDO

Our CSO, Prof. Dr. Carles Ferrer, had the pleasure to attend Ecomondo, the annual trade fair for the green and circular economy, in Rimini, Italy from 6-9 November.

This fair is devoted to show how EU-funding helps circular economy become a reality with concrete projects on the ground and we had the opportunity to contact with many other related projects.

 

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